br By not conducting a
By not conducting a separate analysis for HIV, we potentially un-derestimated the impact of infections on cancer incidence. The pro-portion of cancer attributable to EBV has the potential to increase since non-Hodgkin lymphomas among HIV positive populations were not included in this analysis.
We estimated that 3.7% of cancers diagnosed among Canadians aged 18 and older in 2015 were attributable to seven carcinogenic Preventive Medicine 122 (2019) 109–117
infections. This percentage translated into 7097 cancers, where ~6400 could potentially be prevented with currently available vaccines or treatments. HPV was responsible for more cancers than other infec-tions, comprising more than half of the infection-associated cancer burden. The presence of three vaccines that confer 95% efficacy against the HPV types responsible for cancer incidence is encouraging (Kash et al., 2015). Although Canada has a lower infection-associated cancer burden relative to many other countries (Plummer et al., 2016), in-fection-associated cancers continue to impact cancer incidence and increasing vaccine hesitancy has the potential to limit the progress that could be made in reducing the HPV and HBV associated cancer burden.
Karena D. Volesky is supported by a doctoral award from the Fonds de recherche du Quebec - Santé and the Fondation des étoiles. Darren Brenner holds a Canadian Cancer Society Prevention Capacity Development Award (#703917). Christine Friedenreich was supported by an Alberta Innovates Health Senior Scholar Award and by the Alberta Cancer Foundation Weekend to End Women's Cancers Breast Cancer Chair. We thank Shemay Lee for assisting us with data management.
E.L.F. has served as occasional consultant to companies involved with HPV diagnostics and trans-Oxyresveratrol (Merck, GSK, Roche, and BD). His institution has received grants from Merck and Roche to supple-ment investigator-initiated studies that he leads at McGill University. E.L.F. is Editor-in-Chief at Preventive Medicine and K.D.V. is an Assistant Editor at Preventive Medicine. The process of soliciting the special issue, sending out manuscripts for review, the peer-review process and editorial decision making was conducted entirely outside of the Preventive Medicine online system (for which E.L.F. and K.D.V. have access to through their regular Preventive Medicine duties).
This research is supported by the Canadian Cancer Society Partner Prevention Research Grant (grant #703106).
Role of funding source
The sponsor had no role in the study design, data collection, ana-lysis or interpretation of the data, writing of the manuscript or in the decision to submit this manuscript for publication.
Appendix A. Supplementary data
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