Shaobing Lina Junshan Ruana b Shaoming Wanga b
Shaobing Lina, Junshan Ruana,b, Shaoming Wanga,b,
a Department of pharmacy, Fujian Provincial Hospital& Fujian Medical University, People's Republic of China b Molecular Biology Laboratory of Chinese Traditional Medicine, Fujian Provincial Hospital, People's Republic of China
Reduced graphene oxide
Multifunctional nanocarriers are in immediate need to develop anticancer activity for the treatment of cancers. In the present research, the graphene oxide was reduced via an efficient method which reduced to RGO by using Euphorbia milii leaves extract. Thus obtained RGO nanocomposites were subsequently characterized by means UV–Vis NPI-0052 technique. AFM imaging was further performed in order to analyze the surface morphology of GO nanosheet as well as to estimate the average thickness of the GO nanosheets before and after the addition of Euphorbia milii leaves extract. Furthermore, the anticancer effect of RGO-loaded PTX (RGO/PTX) on A549 (Human lung cancer cell lines) was evaluated by MTT assay. The results displayed that with the increase in the concentration of RGO/PTX to200 ??g/mL, the cell viability reduced to 29%. Even more increase in the con-centration to 500 ??g/mL of RGO/PTX, the cell viability also showed rapid reduction to 10%. Based on this, we can conclude that the increased concentration of RGO/PTX decreased the cell viability of A549 cell lines tre-mendously and has the potential to serve in the lung carcinoma targeted chemotherapy.
In the recent times, cancer as one of the extreme fatal diseases is becoming a severe health mankind [1,2]. While the present che-motherapeutic agents like doxorubicin and paclitaxel with deprived antitumor efficacy along with multidrug resistance isyet a challenge for their fruitful clinical application [3–11].Still with the increase in the drug number or dosage, the anticancer activity of them is unfavorable. Consequently, increased drug dosage may lead to major side effects related to kidneys and heart [3–11]. In order to prevail over these si-tuations, nanoparticles are being investigated for the administration of these chemotherapeutic drugs by improving their solubility as well as release regulation [12–14].
In addition, DOXil like nanoformulations are already being in used clinically for anticancer treatment because of their prolonged blood circulation interval for the drugs to be deposited near the tumor site chiefly via enhanced permeability and retention effect [15–17]. Pre-dominantly the instability of the liposomal structure may cause a burst release and hence cannot solve the issues of minimal anticancer efficacy and high toxicity during the chemotherapeutic process [6–8]. Hence-forth,multifunctional nanocarriers are an immediate need to develop anticancer activity for the treatment of cancers . Interestingly,
phototherapy technique is employed to treat cancers non-invasively stimulated by light having a prospective for cancer treatment, which in turn is presumed to enhance the target focussing and reduce the side effects on healthy cells . Graphene sheets are polyaromatic 2D carbon nanomaterials which present significant photothermal effects because of their ability to convert near infrared light energy into heat energy [20–24]. Inorder to attain more polarity, graphene partially oxidizes into graphene oxide (GO), which has the potential to serve as an ideal nanoplatform during drug adsorption via physical interactions with chemotherapeutic drugs. Moreover, GO could easily cause micro-sized aggregation during intravenous injection due to the lack of col-loidal stability thus limit its biomedical applications. In contrast to the regular rigid nanoparticles, nanogels exhibit more significant colloidal stability because of their hydrophilicity thus stimulating quicker sen-sitivity thus possess enhanced tissue penetration property  along with effective cell uptake potential .
In the current study, the graphene oxide was reduced via an efficient method which reduced to RGO by making use of Euphorbia milii leaf extract. There are several reports available in literature for green synthesis of graphene [25,26]. We choose Euphorbia milii plant extracts for our work since because no reports were available so far for the synthesis of graphene using this extract. Also, the available method is
Corresponding author: Shaoming Wang, No. 134, East Street, Fuzhou 350001, Fujian, People's Republic of China.
>[email protected] (S. Wang).
Available online 22 November 2018
eco friendly and the produced graphene sheets will be non-toxic which leads to their applications in biomedicine. Thus obtained RGO nano-composites were subsequently characterized. Furthermore, the antic-ancer effect of RGO-loaded PTX (RGO/PTX) on A549 (Human lung cancer cell lines) was evaluated.